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Blog Entries posted by lindagray

  1. lindagray
    Most small businesses just rely on an antivirus tool to mitigate cyber risks, despite the fact that hackers show an increasing tendency to target small businesses.
    Small businesses leave many devices unprotected, which causes security risks. Moreover, with BYOD devices and IoT devices being used in large numbers, cybersecurity is becoming crucial for small businesses today. But then, would it be good to have just an antivirus tool alone? Or, would such businesses have to choose endpoint security software for better protection?
    Well, it all depends. It depends on factors like the size of the network, the presence of remote workers, the nature of the business etc. Based on these and other important factors, businesses need to make the right choice. It does matter, because for any business today, cybersecurity is of crucial importance!
    Endpoint security vs. antivirus software
    Endpoint protection involves detecting malicious activity at all endpoints and protecting networks (including desktops, servers, mobile devices etc) from all kinds of intrusions and attacks. Endpoint security works based on the assumption that every endpoint, every single device that’s connected to a network is a vulnerability- a potential entry point for security threats. Endpoint security protects all endpoints in a network as well as the network; it does things like authenticating logins from endpoints, supporting software deployment, software updates etc. Endpoint protection software are a suite of cybersecurity applications- firewalls, antivirus tools, intrusion detection software etc.
    Antivirus software, installed on an individual device/system, detects and removes malware (viruses, trojans, worms, keyloggers, spyware, adware etc). Antivirus tools keep running in the background and scan device directories and file periodically for all kinds of malicious presence. This is done by matching virus definitions and signatures to a database of malware and then blocking/quarantining on finding a match. Antivirus software comes either as a stand-alone product or as a component of endpoint protection platform.
    Key features of endpoint security platforms
    Endpoint detection/response including detecting and reporting of vulnerabilities.
    Provides anti-malware protection.
    Protects data and even offers additional functionalities like DLP (Data Loss Prevention), firewall, mobility management etc.
    Provides reports and alerts about vulnerabilities and issues.
    Integrates with other security tools- intrusion prevention, network monitoring, SIEM etc- via open API systems.
    Provides incident investigation and remediation via centralized, automated tools.
    Key features of antivirus software
    Real-time scanning, which includes taking action against threats/malware detected.
    Identifies all kinds of malware.
    Gives web protection as well; secures online browsing sessions, downloads etc.
    Sends alerts and notifications about malicious software, infected files etc.
    Quarantines, removes infected files based on the severity of damage it could cause.
    Provides automatic updates about virus definitions, signatures etc.
    So, endpoint security or antivirus?
    The answer, in our opinion, should be simple. For a small business, the best option would be to go for an endpoint security solution, especially one that offers managed services to deploy/monitor software operations remotely plus managed detection/response capabilities.
    Which brand to choose?
    This is one area that we’d prefer to stay out of. The choice of brand, for endpoint protection software as well as for antivirus tools depends a lot on your requirements, which, in turn, depend on the nature of your business, the size of your network, the kind of devices you connect to your network etc. You should also consult peers, experts etc before making a choice. However, we’d always say that it’s better to go for reputed brands like Comodo, Avast, McAfee, Symantec, AVG, WebTitan etc. Every business needs to have a budget set aside for this, because, as we have already mentioned, security is crucial for the successful running of any business today.

  2. lindagray
    No matter which deployment mode and detection method you’ve chosen, it will all be for naught if you can’t scale up in order to adequately protect your entire network. After all, DDoS attacks work because of the sheer amount of traffic they can throw your way, so your mitigation system needs to be able to handle large numbers of packets.
    You should also keep the scalability of your analytics infrastructure in mind. For example, a flow sampling method can be easily scaled, but it sacrifices granularity and mitigation speed. Meanwhile, mirrored data packets certainly provide granularity, but they don’t tend to scale well.
    With so many choices, it’s not always easy to choose a DDoS protection solution that’s right for both your company and budget.
    Here are some things you should look for when selecting a solution:
    Precision: When protecting yourself against DDoS attacks, it may seem like a solution’s precision is secondary to its ability to batten down the hatches and weather the storm. However, that couldn’t be farther from the truth: In order to effectively defend your network, a solution must be able to precisely parse traffic in order to correctly distinguish attacking bots from legitimate users.
    Form factor: Some DDoS solutions are offered as a one-size-fits-all product, which is often cost-prohibitive for smaller organizations and inadequate for very large organizations. So, look for a solution that offers a variety of form factors.
    Scalability and breadth: Depending on what type of business you’re in, you may depend on your DDoS solution to protect many downstream business customers. Because of this, a good solution should be capable of protecting your customers as well as your infrastructure.
    Deployment flexibility: As mentioned earlier, there are two types of deployment modes: proactive and reactive. One is not inherently better than the other, and they can each serve a valuable purpose depending on your goals, so ensure that the solution you choose can utilize either mode.
    Automated escalation response: Efficiency is important in all aspects of business, so your DDoS solution should be efficient, too. This means that it should recognize the difference between peaceful, run-of-the-mill traffic and a full-out DDoS attack and adjust its mitigations accordingly.
    Programmable API: While it’s important for DDoS solutions to have easy-to-use, it’s equally important that they have a completely customizable application programming interface (API). A programmable API facilitates automation and the speedy delivery of defenses, applications and virtual infrastructures, which is crucial for organizations using agile SecOps or DevOps models.

  3. lindagray
    As you can see after examining the five most famous attacks, DDoS attacks aren’t going away. In fact, they’re only growing larger and more destructive. So, the best thing you can do to prevent being a victim of one yourself is learn from attacks that have already happened.
    Here’s how you can start thinking about DDoS protection:
    There are benefits to both proactive and reactive DDoS deployment modes, and which one you choose depends on your business goals.
    A proactive mode delivers the highest resolution detection capabilities and is commonly used for real-time apps such as voice, video and gaming. With a proactive mode, detection is always on, and you’re provided with an inline tool that gives 100 percent visibility through packet analysis.
    On the other hand, a reactive mode detects anomalies by analyzing metadata, as well as by leveraging the flow data available from switches and edge routers. A reactive mode is more cost-effective than a proactive one, but it doesn’t have the ability to respond in real-time.
    When it comes to DDoS detection, there are many different methods to choose from, such as:
    Flow Sampling: In flow sampling, the router samples packets and then exports a datagram that contains information about those packets. Nearly all routers support this type of technology, plus it’s highly scalable, making it a popular choice. However, this method only gives you a limited snapshot of your traffic and doesn’t allow for detailed analysis.
    Packet Analysis: When a high-performance DDoS mitigation device is deployed in-path, it can instantly detect and mitigate anomalies. This type of device continuously processing all incoming traffic and can also process all outgoing traffic—this is known as asymmetric and symmetric processing, respectively.
    Mirrored Data Packets: Although mirrored data packets don’t operate in the path of traffic, they provide the full detail for in-depth analysis, and can detect anomalies quickly. The only downside to this method is that it can be difficult to scale up.

  4. lindagray
    More importantly, in many cases a DDoS attack is merely designed to distract from other criminal activity, such as data theft or network infiltration. The attacker keeps its target busy fighting off the DDoS attack, to then sneak in a piece of malware.
    In recent years, DDoS attacks have only been increasing in both frequency and severity. Here, we’ll examine five of the largest and most famous DDoS attacks.
    1. GITHUB: 1.35 TBPS
    On Feb. 28, 2018, GitHub—a popular developer platform—was hit with a sudden onslaught of traffic that clocked in at 1.35 terabits per second. If that sounds like a lot, that’s because it is—that amount of traffic is not only massive, it’s record-breaking.
    According to GitHub, the traffic was traced back to “over a thousand different autonomous systems (ASNs) across tens of thousands of unique endpoints.”
    What’s worse is that GitHub was not entirely unprepared for a DDoS attack—they simply had no way of knowing that an attack of this scale would be launched.
    As GitHub explained in the incident report linked above, “Over the past year we have deployed additional transit to our facilities. We’ve more than doubled our transit capacity during that time, which has allowed us to withstand certain volumetric attacks without impact to users…. Even still, attacks like this sometimes require the help of partners with larger transit networks to provide blocking and filtering.”
    The PopVote DDoS attack was carried out in 2014 and targeted the Hong Kong-based grassroots movement known as Occupy Central. The movement was campaigning for a more democratic voting system.
    In response to their activities, attacker(s) sent large amounts of traffic to three of Occupy Central’s web hosting services, as well as two independent sites, PopVote, an online mock election site, and Apple Daily, a news site, neither of which were owned by Occupy Central but openly supported its cause. Presumably, those responsible were reacting to Occupy Central’s pro-democracy message.
    The attack barraged servers with packets disguised as legitimate traffic, and was executed with not one, not two, but five botnets. This resulted in peak traffic levels of 500 gigabits per second.
    In 2014, security provider and content delivery network CloudFlare was slammed by approximately 400 gigabits per second of traffic. The attack was directed at a single CloudFlare customer and targeted servers in Europe and was launched with the help of a vulnerability in the Network Time Protocol (NTP), a networking protocol for computer clock synchronization. Even though the attack was directed at just one of CloudFlare’s customers, it was so powerful that it affected CloudFlare’s own network.
    This attack illustrated a technique in which attackers use spoofed source addresses to send mass amounts of NTP servers’ responses to the victim. This is known as “reflection,” since the attacker is able to mirror and amplify traffic.
    Shortly after the attack, the U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team explained NTP Amplification Attacks are, “especially difficult to block” because “responses are legitimate data coming from valid servers.”
    4. SPAMHAUS: 300 GBPS
    In 2013, a DDoS attack was launched against Spamhaus, a nonprofit threat intelligence provider. Although Spamhaus, as an anti-spam organization, was and is regularly threatened and attacked, this DDoS attack was large enough to knock their website offline, as well as part of their email services.
    Like the 2014 attack on CloudFlare mentioned above, this attack utilized reflection to overload Spamhaus’ servers with 300 gigabits of traffic per second.
    The attack was traced to a member of a Dutch company named Cyberbunker, who seemingly targeted Spamhaus after it blacklisted Cyberbunker.
    5. U.S. BANKS: 60 GBPS
    In 2012, not one, not two, but a whopping six U.S. banks were targeted by a string of DDoS attacks. The victims were no small-town banks either: They included Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, U.S. Bancorp, Citigroup and PNC Bank.
    The attack was carried out by hundreds of hijacked servers, which each created peak floods of more than 60 gigabits of traffic per second.
    At the time, these attacks were unique in their persistence: Rather than trying to execute one attack and then backing down, the perpetrator(s) barraged their targets with a multitude of methods in order to find one that worked. So, even if a bank was equipped to deal with a few types of DDoS attacks, they were helpless against other types.

  5. lindagray
    DDoS attacks are not only on the rise—they’re also bigger and more devastating than ever before. From independent websites to multinational banks, it seems like no one is immune.
    In fact, a 2017 report from Cisco found that the number of DD0S attacks exceeding 1 gigabit per second of traffic will rise to 3.1 million by 2021, a 2.5-fold increase from 2016.
    However, attackers aren’t the only ones who are capable of adapting. By examining five of the most famous DDoS attacks in recent history, you can learn how to better protect yourself in the future.
    Let’s look at the most famous DDoS attacks and the lessons they have to offer.
    Before we dive in to the five most famous DDoS attacks, let’s first review what is a DDoS attack.
    DDoS stands for Distributed Denial of Service, which refers to the deployment of large numbers of internet bots—anywhere from hundreds to hundreds of thousands. These bots are designed to attack a single server, network or application with an overwhelming number of requests, packets or messages, thereby denying service to legitimate users such as employees or customers.
    Usually, attackers begin a DDoS attack by exploiting a vulnerability in a single computer system. The attacker’s system then becomes the DDoS master and works to identify other vulnerable systems to turn them into bots.
    The perpetrator directs those computer bots to attack through the use of a command-and-control server, or botnet. At that point, all the attacker has to do is tell the bots who to target.
    Who would carry out a DDoS attack? As it turns out, the answer includes many different types of bad actors such as cyber-criminals or disgruntled employees. Perpetrators execute DDoS attacks for a variety of reasons, such as extortion, revenge, or politics.
    DDoS attacks are measured by how many bits (binary digits) of traffic they send at the target per second—for example, a small attack might measure only a few megabits per second (Mbps), while larger attacks might measure several hundred gigabits per second (Gbps), or even more than one terabit per second (Tbps).
    It’s important to note that not all DDoS attacks are bandwidth focused. For example, network protocol attacks are low bandwidth with many packets per second (PPS).

  6. lindagray
    Currently, most computers are connected to the network, and various information is exchanged beyond national borders. Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have also been used in business, personal entertainment and productivity are way more than desktop PCs. In addition, the IoT (Internet-of-Things) technology that connects machinery and equipment used in production processes, social infrastructure, homes, etc. via the Internet is spreading like wildfire.
    Cases of cyber attacks have also become conspicuous behind the convenience due to the spread of such networks. It can be said that enterprises have not only taken measures against leakage of personal information but also have to protect the network and all the systems and computers connected thereto from the threat of cyber attacks, but the reality is the corporate world has deep pockets to fund credible cybersecurity defense systems. What about the ordinary everyday Internet user?
    Here are some of the tips for common users in order to keep themselves secure and private online:
    Using plain passwords alone no longer cut it when it comes to securing and identifying oneself online for a particular web service. This is because of the constant push of the threat actors with their phishing attempts and virus development. Many websites right now have started to offer two-factor authentication for their users, but not enabled by default. It is prudent for users to take advantage of this in order to lessen the chance that someone else will log in to their accounts without their consent.
    Operating systems are constantly being updated to fix bugs and security vulnerabilities. Same goes true for the application software running on top of the OS, as long as the version is still supported, the developers are regularly patching them to be safe. Internet-facing apps like browsers and extensions are the most exposed applications that need constant patching, and these should never be ignored.
    It is a good habit for everyone to encrypt their data before uploading to a cloud storage provider. Yes, many if not all the current players in the cloud storage market have AES encryption implemented, but just to be safe it is better for the files to be encrypted first before uploading. There were instances from the past that the storage drive was accessed by someone else, luckily the user uploaded encrypted files, hence they are rendered useless without a password.
    Never trust random links seen in email and instant messaging applications. Most especially if the links posted came from a URL Shortener service. URL Shortened websites are convenient to use, especially when users want to communicate it to a limited communication tool like Twitter. However, the bad about the use of a URL shortener website link is the non-transparency of the actual destination site. The user has no way to determine if the destination site is safe or not with URL shorteners.
    Never trust claims from a random person, it may be from an instant messaging on Facebook, a random phone call or an SMS message. The parents’ advice to their children of “don’t talk to strangers” is also applicable and helps people keep themselves online.

  7. lindagray
    I recently read a friend’s post about her family’s catastrophic woes dealing with a hacked Apple ID account. Her story was so troubling that it inspired me to remind folks of some of a few small security things that slip through the cracks in our daily lives that can cause a profound impact on our personal digital lives. Even as dedicated IT professionals, there are minor, crucial details which may blend into the background as part of modern life.
    Let’s briefly discuss five commonly-forgotten security best practices, and explore the potential real-life impact on our personal security if we neglect to perform them.
    Home Router Security
    What It Entails
    Home routers (should) receive security updates just like any other device. Unfortunately, these updates are often not applied automatically (because doing so will briefly interrupt internet service). Routers also blend into the background of our daily lives – they’re something we don’t notice until there’s a failure or outage. We should be routinely logging into our routers, ensuring that administrative passwords are strong, wireless networks are configured as intended, and applying any available device updates.
    Home routers should also be replaced with newer models once they’re not longer supported and updated by the manufacturer.
    Finally, I highly advise purchasing and installing a home router your family can manage and ultimately replace behind anything provided to you by your internet service provider.
    What Goes Wrong, if we Forget?
    Bad guys and gals know perfectly well that we forget about routers, and that millions upon millions of them are vulnerable around the world. This makes home routers a juicy target for many reasons. For one, they make a good launch surface for Distributed Denial of Service attacks. They also can pose a risk during targeted attacks against a household or individual, as any security they provide can potentially be circumvented if they are configured with a weak admin password or they lack security updates.
    Multi-Factor Authentication on Email
    What It Entails
    Almost every major global webmail provider provides an option to enable some sort of multi-factor authentication. Their first factor of authentication is typically a traditional password or passphrase. The second factor may be in the form of an authenticator app, a physical token (like a YubiKey or smart card), biometrics, or an SMS message code sent to a user during login. This means two (or more) verification steps are required to access an account, instead of one.
    While security experts may debate ad infinitum about which of these factors is the most secure (SMS is generally considered the weakest), everyone should be using at least two factors of authentication on his or her personal email accounts. Two-factor authentication is a really small inconvenience in exchange for notably increased deterrence against hacking. Instead of simply stealing or guessing a password, a hacker will have to evade or gain access to the second (or third…) form of required authentication to successfully log into the email account.
    What Goes Wrong, if we Forget?
    Your primary home email is far more integral to your daily life than you may immediately imagine. Consider all of the accounts you’ve registered with it over time. Social media, financial, software, online storage, games, home business, and even dating..? The parade of juicy personal information continues.
    It’s very likely, if you were to request to reset the password to one of those  accounts, a reset link or code would be sent to the email in question. Consider the control over all of your other accounts that this one email account and its associated password provides.
    Next, recall all the personal and business contacts who are referenced in your email correspondence and address book. It’s quite common for hackers to spread scams and malware by using a trusted email to send malicious or phishing emails to collected contacts.
    Finally, recall all of the sensitive correspondence you might have in your webmail. While I never advise sending sensitive photos or private medical, financial, or tax data via unencrypted email, the unfortunate truth is that the practice is common and sometimes outside our control. Could a bad guy or gal find your social security number, your bank routing number, sensitive medical data, or intimate photos by searching your mailbox? Could this put you at risk of extortion or blackmail?
    The bottom line is that your email is very likely a “key to your kingdom”. In a best case scenario, we should create separate, well-secured email accounts for both correspondence and sensitive account registration. At an absolute minimum, every email account we use should have two-factor authentication configured.
    Multi-Factor Authentication on Apple ID and Microsoft Accounts
    What It Entails
    A few years ago, our email accounts alone were the primary point of access to our online presence. This has shifted slightly with an increasing number of popular consumer services in “the cloud” and available by subscription. MacOS and Windows now highly encourage the use of their own centralized online accounts to manage computers, software, apps, phones, and tablets.
    Similar to email and social media, our Apple ID accounts and Microsoft accounts allow us to configure two-factor authentication. This will require anyone accessing these accounts to provide a second form of authentication to log into a new device.
    What Goes Wrong, if we Forget?
    Our iTunes accounts may have been created in an era where their sole purpose was purchasing $2 songs, but Apple IDs control far more than that today. Dependent on device settings, an Apple ID may provide the ability to purchase expensive software, access personal photos and videos, remotely track or erase devices, or even make system changes. Indeed, the theft of an Apple ID account can lead to a pretty dire situation in an Apple ecosystem.  While enabling two-factor authentication isn’t a silver bullet against a determined attacker, it’s an important deterrent and well worth the time and effort.
    Microsoft was a bit later to the game, as Windows 8 was the first heavily Cloud-integrated Windows operating system. However, Microsoft has followed Apple’s lead since then in integrating app purchases, online photo and document storage, and remote device tracking and management into Microsoft accounts. Convenience creates a single target for attackers.
    Treat these accounts as extremely sensitive, and use them only on trusted devices. If your device is stolen or accessed by somebody you don’t trust, change your password immediately on a secure computer. Understand that if they are stolen, the thief may have substantial ability to tamper with your devices until their access is revoked.
    Facebook Authentication and Privacy
    What It Entails
    Facebook is best known as a social media (and data aggregation) platform, but they provide another popular service we rarely twice about: Facebook Login. Across the web, Facebook Login has become a popular and sometimes mandatory mechanism for authenticating users to apps, services, and accounts.
    It’s far too easy for me as a security person to make the blanket statement, “never use Facebook Login”. Sites and apps often request far too much personal Facebook profile information with use of the service, and a password manager is far more trustworthy. However, Facebook Login does counter a lot of common security problems such as weak and reused passwords, and poor login security configuration on websites. For now, it legitimately serves a place to reduce poor security practices on the internet.
    If we choose to use Facebook despite significant privacy concerns, we should ensure our accounts are as secure and private as possible. Once again, two- authentication should be enabled. We should use a strong password, and restrict the public visibility of our personal information as much as possible.
    What Goes Wrong, if we Forget?
    We discussed some substantial privacy and security concerns regarding our email addresses being linked to more sensitive personal and business accounts. The problems with Facebook Login are similar – while it may provide an increase in security over weak or reused passwords, a hacker gaining access to our Facebook account could be catastrophic. So, increasing our Facebook account security is a must if we choose to use Facebook to log into other services and apps.
    Secondly, there is the matter of the information we share on Facebook. Common account security questions like, “What was your first pet”, and, “What was your high school mascot” are useless if the answer can be relatively easily located on your social media. While we’ll talk a little bit more about security questions in the next section, it’s always a good idea to avoid oversharing with the publicly-facing internet. The internet remembers forever.
    Always Lie (On Security Questions)
    What It Entails
    Whether the site wants to know your favorite band or your mother’s maiden name, it’s probably a good idea to make something up. Worried about forgetting your made-up answer? Store it in your password manager.
    What Goes Wrong, if we Forget?
    Password reset questions are an unfortunate relic of the past which are still used all over the internet and financial institutions to verify identity. There are two fundamental problems with this:
    A) The same questions are used (and reused) all over the internet.
    B) The internet is full of interesting facts about our lives which we put there, and that are collected and posted without our permission.
    Not only is it likely websites you use will eventually be hacked into and your security question responses will be sold on the black market, but the most common questions are ones that can be answered with a little hunting and social engineering on the internet.
    It can feel difficult to lie to a formal institution or even to a commercial service about anything, but outside some government forms, there is rarely any law that says you must provide an honest answer to these security questions. It’s best to not tempt fate.
  8. lindagray
    Every app installed on your smartphone with permission to access location service "can" continually collect your real-time location secretly, even in the background when you do not use them.
    Do you know? — Installing the Facebook app on your Android and iOS smartphones automatically gives the social media company your rightful consent to collect the history of your precise location.
    If you are not aware, there is a setting called "Location History" in your Facebook app that comes enabled by default, allowing the company to track your every movement even when you are not using the social media app.
    So, every time you turn ON location service/GPS setting on your smartphone, let's say for using Uber app or Google Maps, Facebook starts tracking your location.
    Users can manually turn Facebook's Location History option OFF from the app settings to completely prevent Facebook from collecting your location data, even when the app is in use.
    However, unfortunately, disabling Location History would also break some Facebook features that rely on location data like checking into a nearby location, tagging locations in an uploaded photo or while using Nearby Friends, a feature that lets friends share their locations with each other.
    When talking about iOS, Apple offers its users more control over such situations at device level where users don't want to completely stop an app from using location, allowing them to choose if an app can also access location data in the background or not.
    However, people using Facebook on Android have an all-or-nothing option when it comes to location sharing, which means either they have to grant Facebook full access to their location data or completely prevent the social network from seeing your location at all, without any option for accessing your location data only when the app is open.
    How to Stop Facebook From Tracking You When Not in Use
    Facebook has finally changed this behavior by introducing a new privacy setting to its Android app, giving users more explicit, granular control over background collection of their location data.
    Here's how you can prevent Facebook from tracking your location when the app is not in use:
    Open the Facebook app on your Android smartphone
    Go to the Settings menu on the top right corner (looks like this ☰)
    Tap on Settings & Privacy
    Choose Privacy Shortcuts
    Select Manage your location settings
    Now, toggle "Background Location" to OFF
    If you enable this setting, two things will happen—"you would share your location when you weren't using the app, and you would allow Facebook to store a history of your precise locations."
    "We're not making any changes to the choices you've previously made nor are we collecting any new information as a result of this update," Facebook's post reads.
    "For people who previously chose to turn their Location History setting 'on,' the new background location setting is 'on.' For people who had turned Location History 'off' – or never turned it on in the first place – the new background location setting is 'off.'"
    With this update, Facebook gives users a dedicated way to choose whether or not to share their location when they are not using the social media app.
    iOS users need not worry about such features, as Apple already offers iPhone users an option to block an app from using their location in the background when the app is not open.
    If you are an iPhone user and have not already stop Facebook—or any other app—from tracking your location in the background, you can follow these simple steps:
    Go to Settings
    Select Privacy
    Choose "Location Services"
    If you want to completely stop all apps from tracking you, turn Location Services off. If you want to limit this setting depending on every app, tap each app and choose "Never" or "While Using."
    Make sure apps that don't require your location, like most games, photo sharing apps and editors, are set to "Never."
    Meanwhile, Facebook is also sending out alerts to both Android and iOS users, asking them to review their location settings.

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